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            Animal models, such as mice and
rats, are essential tools in scientific researches such as development of
medical and veterinary discoveries. People started using different animal
models since the discovery of science itself. However, the usage of animals in
research differs in different views of individuals. Even so, it is undeniable
that animal-based researches has been part of every medical discovery for more
than hundreds of years. Because of this, there is a rapid technological advances
and animal studies remains a need for scientific researches today and even in
future.

            The most commonly used laboratory
animal models are rats and mice. According to the Foundation for Biomedical
Research (FBR), 95% of all laboratory animals are mice and rats. Researchers and
scientists prefer rodents since they are small, easily housed and maintained,
and can adapt well to new surroundings. They reproduce quickly and have a short
life span of two to three years (Melina, 2010), which enables
researchers to have several generations of offsprings within a reasonable
period of time (Johnson, 2012). And also rodents
are relatively inexpensive compared to other animal models such as rabbits,
cats, or dogs and it can be bought in large quantities from commercial
producers. Most mice and rats used in a clinical trial is of the same strain or
breed, for they are somewhat genetically identical, the only difference is the
genders. Another reason is that according to a website article, humans and mice
share almost 95% of genes which made them an effective model for the human body
(Undersatanding Animal Research, 2017) and is appropriate
for use to answer many research questions said Jenny Haliski, a representative
for the National Institute of Health (HIH) Office of the Laboratory Animal
Welfare. Majority of the commonly used mice in laboratories are albino. This is
due to a common mutation in tyrosinase gene. In which tyrosinase is one of the
key enzymes in mammalian melanin synthesis (Ramsden & Riley, 2014).

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ICR strain,
an albino, is a mouse model of Swiss origin and descended from the original two
male and seven female albino non-inbred mice (Research Models and Services, n.d.). This outbred strain
was named after the Institute of Cancer Research in the USA. The mice strain has
a docile nature, excellent reproductive and maternal instincts, rapid growth
rate and low incidence of spontaneous tumor (Research Models and Services, n.d.). ICR strain mice can
be used in almost all types of researches – oncology, immunology, toxicology,
neurology, etc. 

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