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Development
of all Plasmodium species occurs in
two hosts: the definitive hosts are the mosquitoes where the parasite undergoes
sexual reproduction. Human is intermediate host for Plasmodium falciparum, wherein asexual multiplication occurs. P. falciparum sporozoites are released
in humans into the subcutaneous tissue through the bites of infected female Anopheles. The life cycle of Plasmodium divides into three phases:
the pre-erythrocytic (PE) stage (asymptomatic stage) (approx. 5-6 days in
humans or 2-3 days in rodents), which initiates the infection; the asexual
erythrocytic stage, which causes disease symptoms; and the gametocyte stage,
which infects mosquitoes that transmit the parasite. The pre-erythrocytic cycle
begins when infected female Anopheles
mosquito delivers the small number of sporozoites in dermis or skin during the blood
meal into the bloodstream and sporozoites rapidly travels to the liver and
where they infect the hepatocytes, before infecting hepatocytes sporozoites are
supposed to pass through a number of hepatocytes reference. In the liver, a
single sporozoites gives rise to thousands of asexual parasites called
merozoites released in the blood circulation by bursting hepatocytes . Each
sporozoite forms a schizont which contains 10,000–40,000 merozoites .
Further, merozoites infect erythrocytes and multiply until the cells ruptures
releasing merozoites and infect mature erythrocytes. This cycle is repeated,
causing clinical symptoms of malaria, each time parasites break free. While
some merozoites develop sexually forms to form gametocytes, which is infective
to mosquito.

The immune system  

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The immune a
system is remarkably defense system that has evolved in higher organisms to
protect the host from invading pathogens and cancer. During the course of
evolution, nature developed a complex system of cells and molecules to defend
organisms in a concerted action against multiple pathogens like bacteria,
viruses, parasites as well as certain tumors. The basic principle of the immune
system is based on the discrimination between self and foreign tissues that
should be protected and foreign structures that indicate pathogen invasion or
development of malignancies. To overcome this challenging task, the mammalian
host immune system has developed two main branches based on the specificity of
this antigen recognition, the innate and the adoptive immune system (Abbas and
Lichtman, 2007; Janeway et al., 2005). 

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