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I. Life cycle analysis of Paper bagsAccording to Encyclopaedia Britannica (2018) they defined the paper as matted or felted sheet, usually made of cellulose fibers, formed on a wire screen from water suspension. Paper bag becomes sonorous and used when the time the studies about the process in making plastic bags are finalized and proven. It is serve us the alternative bag to bring the groceries and newly purchased items used by the shoppers in their everyday life in market since other studies proved that the production of plastic bags create a comparable level of environmental impact to the ecosystem and in the environment. According to different studies, the production of paper bags are more safe and effective than the production of plastic bags.1.1 Raw material procurementPaper bags are made up of renewable resource trees. Extraction of both products is energy intensive.”This is increasingly true as tapped wells become less productive,and supplementary methods are required to continue extraction ” (B. Quep, 2018). After the extractions, the raw materials must be purified, adding to the energy take. 1.2 Manufacturing The EcoBilan Carrefour Life Cycle Assessment (N. D) said that paper bags manufacture takes 2.2 times more non-renewable energy compared to the consumption of plastic bags. Paper bag emits 4.7 times of water, 3.1 more greenhouse gases and 2.7 times more acid gases compared to the manufacture of plastic bags. Before it can be produced, the trees must be cut down and the machines will remove the logs to be used for the bags. The process in doing paper bags can be done chemically or mechanically. Second, According to Xena Zuno (2015) the fibers are sunk in water to become bleach. In using this bleaching, the fibers makes the paper white. Third, The pulp is beaten. The pulp is the fiber that can be found commonly from wood, fiber crops, waste paper and rags. Beating the pulp untangle the fibers into tiny pieces and makes them stick together. The beating of pulp are done by putting the pulp using two metal disks and that metal disk will crush and pulverize the fibers. Zuno also states that slurry (a semiliquid mixture, typically of fine particles of manure, cement, or coal suspended in water.- Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2018) is gushed onto a screen and it will form a mat shape and the water will be drained and only the fiber will remained. After that, the paper is created until it is dried. Then, it is exposed to heat, and chemicals and that is it. 1.3 DistributionPaper bag is good in our environment and it also good for earning money. Some companies and other factory produces paper bag and distributed to different markets and grocery stores because it is the place where the consumers needed it in buying and purchasing their stuffs. 1.4 Consumer useThe paper bags are also known as the reusable shopping bags and said as “the bag for life “. Everyday, consumers always use a paper bag every time they went to the grocery stores to purchase different stuffs that they need day by day. But consumers not only use paper bag when they went to groceries instead we can also use it many times. According to the study of (N. Dela Puente, 2008), consumers uses 500 bags or 20 percent a year. Paper bags cost 5 pesos and the consumers does not care about the price itself.1.5 Post-Consumer useAfter the Paper bags being used, it is put through the recycling process. ” The percentage of post-consumer fibers means how much of the pulp used to make the paper has been used by a consumer ” (Anonymous, 2017). Consumers disposed the paper bags after they used it and not using it in other ways such as wrapping gift, scrap paper, book cover, etc. because paper bags are considered as reusable. According to the same study, paper will last up to 2-5 months to take to biodegradable in natural setting. II. Life cycle of Plastic bagsPlastic is a type of synthetic or man-made polymer; similar in many ways to natural resins found in trees and other plants2.1 Raw material procurementThe major raw materials in manufacturing plastic bags are oil and natural gas. Bernie Quep (2018) on his study life cycle assessment of paper bags states that one of the components in doing paper bags is the polyethylene which has natural gas and petroleum. According to the study of (T. Lacoma, 2017), The existence of plastic begins as ethylene, the ethylene will be extracted to be natural gas, and become a polymer. Different types of polyethylene can help to produce or create different types of plastic bags. 2.2 ManufacturingIn manufacturing, plastic bags is more environmentally friendly than paper bags. The manufacture of paper bags has bigger and tremendous impact than the manufacture of plastic bags in groceries. According to Scottish Government’s (2005) report on Plastic shopping bags, In manufacturing paper bags it takes four times more water than the manufacturing of plastic bags. In manufacturing paper bags, the paper generates more greenhouse gases compared to manufacturing plastic bags. Plastic bags consume less water and energy to produce and create less waste if disposed in a land fill. In state of waste generated, Christwaterguy (2011) said that plastic bags produce lower chance of global warming and paper bags generates five times more waste than the plastic bags. In air and water emission, Plastic bags create 4,645 tons of CO2 equivalent per 150 million compared to Paper bags that generates 7,621 tons of CO2 equivalent per 150 million bags, and composted paper bags generate 14,558 tons per 150 million bags. Therefore, Plastic bags are more safe than the Paper bags which causes much CO2. In manufacturing Plastic bags, it need 58 gallons to produce 1500 bags while paper bags need 1502 gallons of water to produce 1500 bags. The “cracking process” is a process where natural gas and crude oil are treated and this process will lead to conversion of the components into hydrocarbon monomers such as ethylene and propylene. Extrusion is the process in making plastic and we heat the polyethylene plastic to 500 degrees Fahrenheit and this temperature will melt the pellets where the molten plastic is pushed and the die 2.3 DistributionMarket and grocery stores are the primary place whete plastic bags are distributed. MoEp, 2012.4 Consumer useThe Plastic bags has a greatest contribution to the environment as well to the human society which is the plastic bags are use as toilet or disposable bag. Opposing to that, this plastic bags are number one source of pollution on our environment. Every year, One (1) trillion to two (2) trillion per minute are being used. Before the paper bags are invented as alternate bag, plastic bags are the shopping bag use by consumers everyday and throw it without proper disposing. In some other cases, plastic bags can be use 100 times before they disposed it. According to the study of (N. Dela Puente, 2008), consumer use 500 bags a year and 80 percent of this are plastic bags. 2.5 Post-Consumer useAfter the plastic bags are used 100 times, the According to a American Chemistry Council, 29% of post-consumer  plastic bags and film were used for composite lumber applications in 2008

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