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Introduction:There were several causes as to why the war had begun; the most prominent reason being to abolish slavery and give slaves their freedom and right to vote. But at the end of the civil war that goal of the North wanting to abolish slavery did not get accomplished. Instead of getting freedom and their right to vote, African Americans received a law that was passed by congress called the Jim Crow Law. This law enforced racial segregation in the Southern states after the civil war, and this impacted the lives of African Americans in unpleasant ways; because it deprived them from their ability to enjoy life and deprived them from the same conditions and other governmental services that white people received.    Background: After the Union Victory in the Civil War in 1865, a process of rebuilding called The Reconstruction Period took place. The Reconstruction period can be defined as the attempts that were made to redress the inequities of slavery and its political, social, and economic legacy and to solve the problems arising from the readmission of the 11 states that had seceded from the Union. Reconstruction less than a year after President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. President Lincoln announced his Ten Percent Plan. Under the plan, when one- tenth of a state’s voters took an oath of loyalty, they could establish a new government(FN). Since the plan was put in place in Union occupied Confederate states, To Lincoln, this plan was a method to weaken the Southern states. After Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865, Andrew Johnson became president.(FN) Johnson offered a pardon to all Southern whites in Confederate Southern states, and he also restored their political rights and properties. Apart from abolishing slavery, the Confederate states were not given any help to manage African Americans residing in their states. These Confederate states responded by enacting Black codes and by installing Jim Crow laws. Black codes were laws that were designed to maintain the social and economic structure of racial slavery in the absence of the “peculiar institution”. The laws codified white supremacy by restricting the civic participation of freed people(FN). Jim Crow laws were laws that enforced racial segregation in southern states between the end of reconstruction in 1877 and the beginning of the civil rights movements(FN). The name Jim Crow was retrieved from the name of a minstrel routine performed beginning in 1828 by its author, Thomas Dartmouth Rice and by many imitators, including actor Joseph Jefferson. Legislatures started passing laws requiring the separation of whites from people of color in public places, transportation, and school. This was because the legislation of southern states was no longer controlled by carpetbaggers and freedmen. This allowed the Southern Legislatures to freely pass any law that concerns people of color without facing any pressure who promote helping African Americans.Course of Events:Before the start of the civil war, the inferior status of slaves had made it unnecessary for states to pass laws segregating slaves from white people. Both races could work next to each other as long as the slave knew his place in society. In the major cities of several states where most free blacks lived, some forms of segregation existed, but no uniform pattern emerged. It was not until the year of 1877 that Supreme Courts started to pass laws requiring the separation from blacks and whites. In 1877 the Supreme Court ruled in Hall v DeCuir that states could not prohibit segregation on railroads,streetcars, or riverboats. Seven years later the Supreme Court approved a Mississippi state statute that required segregation on intrastate carriers. From the end of the civil war to 1892 nine states, including Louisiana, passed laws requiring separation on public places and streetcars and railroads, any railroad employee who did not enforce these laws would be fined or would face the possibility of jail. These laws were created by the court to make life miserable for African Americans; these laws forced African Americans to live life differently and forced them to only socialize with other African Americans when in public areas or when using public transportation.Significance: The Jim Crow Laws Influence on society have made them a very significant and controversial law in American History. These laws are considered controversial because of the role that they had on the lives of African Americans after the civil War. Some Northerners thought that these laws were unfair to African Americans because these laws basically took away most of the rights African Americans had. Other Northerners thought that the Jim Crow Laws put African Americans back in their place. This is because after the civil war some African American started working in occupations that require them to work alongside white people. Whereas in the South most if not all of the people supported the Jim Crow Laws; this is because people in the South were acclimated to seeing the African American population work as their slaves, they were acclimated to seeing African Americans work in occupations that were lower than theirs; they weren’t acclimated to seeing African Americans work beside them in the same job field and ride beside them in public transportation systems.Conclusion: Ever since the end of the civil war, African Americans have not had a peaceful life. From living and working in the cotton plantations to contributing in the civil war, African Americans have been treated horribly. An example of this horrible treatment can be found in the form of the Jim Crow Law; The Jim Crow Law was a law that was passed by Congress to enforce racial segregation in all public areas in all states, northern and southern. The Jim Crow Laws not only forced African Americans to separate themselves from white people, it also oppressed and demoralized their morale and spirit. These laws were developed slowly as time went on; first the senate started it by enforcing segregation laws in individual states, such as Mississippi and Louisiana, then congress started penalizing and fining people who would not enforce the law in public areas such as Railroads, Restaurants and bus stops. Slowly one by one states started supporting the Jim Crow Laws, and as a result the number of jobs that African Americans and Whites worked together in started to dwindle, public areas would mostly be filled with white people, and other “colored people” restaurants and bathrooms would start to appear more often.BibliographyFolmsbee, Stanley J. The origin of the first “Jim Crow” law. Place of publication not identified, 1949.Jim Crow Laws.” Jim Crow Laws: Facts, List and Examples ***. Accessed December 20, 2017. http://www.american-historama.org/1866-1881-reconstruction-era/jim-crow-laws.htm. PBS. “Jim Crow Laws.” PBS. Accessed December 20, 2017. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/freedom-riders-jim-crow-laws/. Tischauser, Leslie Vincent. Jim Crow laws. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2012. Urofsky, Melvin I. “Jim Crow law.” Encyclopædia Britannica. July 19, 2017. Accessed December 20, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/event/Jim-Crow-law. 

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