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Israel’s legal system combines three legal traditions:
English common law, civil law, and Jewish law.6 It is based on the principle
of stare decisis (precedent) and is an adversarial system, where the parties in
the suit bring evidence before the court. Court cases are decided by
professional judges rather than juries.354 Marriage and divorce are under the
jurisdiction of the religious courts: Jewish, Muslim, Druze, and Christian. The
election of judges is carried out by a committee of two Knesset members, three
Supreme Court justices, two Israeli Bar members and two ministers (one of
which, Israel’s justice minister, is the committee’s chairman). The committee’s
members of the Knesset are secretly elected by the Knesset, and one of them is
traditionally a member of the opposition, the committee’s Supreme Court
justices are chosen by tradition from all Supreme Court justices by seniority,
the Israeli Bar members are elected by the bar, and the second minister is
appointed by the Israeli cabinet. The current justice minister and committee’s
chairwoman is Ayelet Shaked

In 1967, as a result of the Six-Day War, Israel captured and
occupied the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip and the Golan
Heights. Israel also captured the Sinai Peninsula, but returned it to Egypt as
part of the 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty.361 Between 1982 and 2000, Israel
occupied part of southern Lebanon, in what was known as the Security Belt.
Since Israel’s capture of these territories, Israeli settlements and military
installations have been built within each of them, except Lebanon. Israel has
applied civilian law to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem and granted their
inhabitants permanent residency status and the ability to apply for
citizenship. The West Bank, outside of the Israeli settlements within the
territory, has remained under direct military rule, and Palestinians in this
area cannot become Israeli citizens. Israel withdrew its military forces and
dismantled the Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip as part of its
disengagement from Gaza though it continues to maintain control of its airspace
and waters.

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