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Kingdom of Bahrain, located in the Middle East neighboring Saudi Arabia and Qatar, have been through a lot of history and scenarios. Such a small island has attracted local, regional, and international powers due to its strategical location that made it a strategic trading port that many powers took advantage of. Kingdom of Bahrain have been a fantastic port for the many great powers. The Kingdom of Bahrain were also famous for their valuable pearls and their professional ship building abilities. Such a great and small Kingdom hosts a countless number of historical events that are enough to fill up more than hundreds of books. The book will mainly sum up the historical events that took place during the middle ages in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Those ages have made Bahrain witness an occupation by the Abbasids and the Umayyads during the 9th and 10th centuries. The Umayyad Era: The Umayyads were the first Muslim dynasty that have been established in the year 661AD. The Umayyad dynasty did not last for long compared to the Ottoman Empire and the Abbasid Empire, they were fallen by the hands of the Abbasids in the year. They were the first dynasty in the Islamic region to have been passing ruling position throughout the members of the family, being originally from Mecca. Both the Umayyad family the prophet Mohammed, peace and blessings be upon him, are descended from a common ancestor, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai. The prophet Mohammed, peace and blessings be upon him, descended from Abd Manaf through his son, Hashim, while the Umayyad descended from Abd Manaf through a different son. The Umayyads have shifted and have made Damascus their main capital city, which resulted in a change in Islam and a change of era. The First Fitnah: When Mohammed, peace and blessings be upon him, have started to broadcast his message of Islam to others, the Umayyads stood against him as they were feeling threatened by what Islam is demanding and changing in the community. Muawiya, the son of Abu Sufyan who was one of Mohammed’s, peace and blessings be upon him, enemies were the first Umayyad ruler. Mohammed’s, peace and blessings be upon him, march into Mecca have resulted in Abu Sufyan converting into Islam with Muawiya and his older brother, Yazid, joining too making them late convertors. Muawiya was so intelligent, had abnormal skills that were not seen anywhere, and had great luck have given him the power to build the first Muslim dynasty. Mohammed, peace and blessings be upon him, have handed high positions to in the government to Muawiya’s Umayyad family and Quraysh high ranks. Muawiya have joined the military and have been assigned to go with his older brother, Yazid, on a conquest to Syria. Caliph Umar have given Yazid the rule of Syria with Muawiya serving Yazid until the year 640AD where Yazid died and Muawiya have taken the rule. With Muawiya ruling Syria, he has switched Syria into his own power headquarters base and have launched many attacks from there. Muawiya have granted full respect of his soldiers after he successfully attacking the Byzantines. As time goes, Muawiya power grows into an even greater power. Muawiya have refused into recognizing Ali as a caliph and was requested by Ali to step down the throne of Syria. That was due to Muawiya being outraged by the murder of his uncle and wanted the assassin to be punished but Ali refused. This scenario have lead to a civil war which was called Fitna. After Muawiya was announced a caliph in 661AD, he has created a strong government with its capital being Damascus, Syria. He has given government positions to Christians who were working under the Byzantines with the purpose of adopting their governing style. Muawiya have tried to take over the rest of the Byzantine Empire but he failed miserably and was forced to sign a treaty that made him pay an annual subsidy and was banned from any further attacks. The Second Fitna: Muawiya have played with the rules and have made a new historical rule that the rule passes to the son instead of it being chosen by a community. He named his son Yazid the successor. A lot of Muslims have gone against the hereditary rule and each group had their own belief of how the rule should be passed, some believed that the ruler should be chosen by the members of the community and some believed that it should be passed to one of Mohammed’s, peace and blessings be upon, family. Yazid taking control and becoming a caliph have stormed out a revolution. Ali’s son has retired from retired, but his younger brother Hussain did not agree. Yazid wanted Hussain to consider him as a caliph but he refused which resulted in Yazid quickly acting to avoid any future events that could result in him being overthrown. Yazid have sent an army and have got Hussain surrounded when he was travelling. Hussain and his family got slaughtered introducing the Battle of Karbala. As time goes, a new opponent, Abd Allah ibn AlZubayr, have appeared who have started his own power base in Mecca and considered himself the true caliph. Yazid have attacked Mecca with a purpose of getting it back from AlZubayr, but he miserably failed and have severely damaged the city with the Kaaba too. After a while, Yazid have passed away and his son, Muawiya II, have taken control. Muawiya II was a weak leader and could not lead in wars. People were unhappy with the Umayyads and Muawiya II could not resist AlZubayr which have resulted in AlZubayr taking over some of the Umayyads lands and the people started to consider AlZubayr the true caliph. Muawiya II was a failure in leading the Umayyads and have died later. The death of Muawiya II was not a declaration of the end of the Umayyads as a close relative, Marwan, have taken control after Muawiya II. Marwan have stood against the rule of AlZubayr and have considered himself as the true caliph. A civil war broke out in both Damascus and Mecca which was called the Second Fitna. Marwan ruled for approximately a year as he was succeeded by his son, Abd Al-Malik. Abd Al-Malik have gone against the Shiites and killed those who were trying to kill the people responsible of killing Hussain. After that, Abd Al-Malik have gathered an army and stormed into Mecca killing AlZubayr, and returning Mecca to the rule of the Umayyads. The Third Fitna – Abbasid Revolution: The Third Fitna was the last Fitna started by the Abbasids to end and annihilate the Umayyads. All of Abd Al-Malik descendants were wiped out which resulted in the grandson of Marwan, Marwan II, to take control of the Umayyads. The Third Fitna have made the Umayyad military a weak military that could easily handled by rebellions. The people that lived in Iran were not being treated fairly, they way they were supposed to be treated. The non-Muslim Arabs that were there were against the mawali – taxes that should be payed by the non-Muslims population living in the Muslim land – and were being considered as lower ranked than the Muslim as Muslim citizens were considered first-class citizens. Mohammed’s, peace and blessings upon him, uncle, Abbas (known as the Abbasids) have planned and stormed out a rebellion against the Umayyads. Enemies and haters of the Umayyads, people who wanted the Umayyads down, have all gathered under Abul’Abbas as-Saffah. As-Saffah have ruled the Abbasids into marching and taking control of Damascus. He has killed Marwan II in the Battle of the Zab. Later then, As-Saffah have invited the rest of the leftover Umayyads to a feast where he trapped them and slaughtered them, one of the Umayyads, Abdulrahman, have successfully escaped the slaughter and have ended up in Al-Andalus.

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