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  Rise of The Lemon Cookies Chemistry Experimental Investigation    ___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher ___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator TeacherAmelia Baurer640 W. Scott St.Chicago, IL 60610Grade 7Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 2Purpose and Hypothesis Page 3Background Research Page 4-5Materials and Procedure Page 6-7Results Page 8-9Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 11Reference List Page 12-13              AcknowledgmentsI would like to thank my parents for buying my ingredients, without you guys I would have never been able to even do my project.  Also I would like to thank my brother for helping me, and my dog for not eating my experiment. Oh, and my friends for letting me slack off of my project with them.                  Purpose and HypothesisThe purpose of the experiment was to find how different leavenings affected lemon cookies.   My hypothesis was that if I change the leavenings, the lemon cookies will change their height and diameter based on the strength and potency of the leavening.  I think the chemical baking soda will have the most height because it is pure chemicals therefore they can insert many additives that make it more powerful.  I believe the largest diameter will be from instant yeast because it is the weakest of the leavening ingredients. I base this on my experience using instant yeast in bread making.                Review of Literature In this experiment, 7 different leavenings of 3 different categories — baking soda, yeast and baking powder — were used in the lemon cookies.  There was a lot of research to do, as all of the leavenings were of different potency and consistency. 3 of the leavenings were alive, which also required more research. The first type of leavening used in this experiment was baking soda.  Baking soda is the shortened name of its one ingredient: sodium bicarbonate. There are 2 types of baking soda; natural baking soda and chemically derived baking soda.  Natural baking soda was mined, while chemically derived baking soda was created in a lab.  There may be some confusion with the chemical baking soda because baking soda is a chemical leavener.  While the names are similar, they are different. Realsimple.com (2017) says, ¨Baking soda is a base mineral, which, when combined with something acidic, produces carbon dioxide. Usually this happens in liquid, and the results you get are bubbles.”  This perfectly captures what a chemical leavening is because a chemical leavening uses air and a chemical reaction to make things rise fast, while a biological leavening takes more time.The second type of leavening was baking powder.  Katie Stanford from Realsimple.com says baking powder is made up of baking soda, a dry acid such as cream of tartar and a stabilizer such as corn starch which keeps the acid and the alkaline from reacting until it is combined with liquid. ( 2017)   Baking powder can come in 2 varieties, single-acting and double-acting.  Single-acting means that the baking powder only reacts once, meaning one time when the baking powder is mixed with liquid.  Double-acting baking powder reacts twice.  The first time is when single-acting baking powder also reacts, when it is mixed with liquid, and the second one is while it is baking.  The two are exactly same except for when they react.The final 3 leavenings used in the experiment were fresh yeast, instant yeast, and active dry yeast.  Those leavenings are different from the above leavenings because they are biological leavenings. A biological leavening takes time and warmth to properly leaven the dough.  Biological leavening works because the yeast eats the sugars in the dough and then slowly, the yeast releases carbon dioxide and then dies, releasing even more carbon dioxide.  As stated before, there are 3 types of yeast.  Fresh yeast is packed yeast and it has an almost chalky feel, and it is fresh.  Instant and active-dry yeast are both dry yeasts that are activated without water whereas fresh yeast is activated with water.  In baking though, no yeast is better than another.  According to the San Francisco Baking Institute, ¨In fact-if used properly-dry yeast will produce the exact same bread as fresh yeast. As long as the amounts are correct, the process is the same.”  So the yeasts should all be the same in the height and diameters. All in all,  the leavenings are of different potencies and the results should correspond with that.  The yeasts should all be the same, the baking sodas should have the largest height and the baking powders should have the largest diameter.               Materials and ProcedureProcedure:Combine 2.4 grams of baking powder and 100 ML of water together. Repeat. If it bubbles and froths fast and vigorously, it is usable.  Combine 2.4 grams of baking soda and 100 ML of water together.  Repeat. If it bubbles and froths fast and vigorously, it is usually. Combine 2.4 grams of yeast and 100 ML of warm water. Let rest for 10 minutes. Repeat for all of the types of yeast. If it bubbles and moves, it is usable.Preheat oven to 176 degrees C.Combine 256 grams of flour with 2.1 grams of baking soda, 2.1 grams of salt and 14.15 grams of lemon zest.Cream 201 grams of butter with 113 grams of sugar.Add 1 egg, 4.2 ML of vanilla extract and 28.3 ML of lemon juice to the butter and sugar mixture.Once combined, slowly add the flour mixture still everything is incorporated. Create 41 gram balls of dough and place, evenly spread out on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper. Mark each type of cookie in a different way if you are using different leavenings   Place cookies in oven and bake for 15-20 minutes. The oven will be at 176 degrees C.Once the cookies baked, let them cool and them measure them.  Measure the diameter and height in mm. Record.Average out the heights and the diameters and record.Materials:4.5 grams of chemical baking soda4.5 grams of natural baking soda4.5 grams of single-acting baking powder4.5 grams of double-acting baking powder4.5 grams of instant yeast4.5 grams of fresh yeast4.5 grams of active dry yeast818 ML of luke-warm water1.765 kg of all-purpose flour14.7 grams of salt7 eggs99.05 grams of lemon zest1.407 kg of butter791 grams of granulated sugar29.4 ML of vanilla extract198.1 ML of lemon juiceA sensitive baking scaleA standard mixerParchment paperMixing bowls Baking sheetsOven mitts Ruler7 cupsResults My results were rather different than my hypothesis.  I had hypothesized that the chemical baking soda would have the most height and that instant yeast would have the largest diameter.  I was wrong.  As my data shows, natural baking soda had the largest diameter on average and single acting baking powder had the largest height.  Active dry yeast cookies were the smallest even though all of the cookies were the same size and weight when I was shaping them.  The largest diameter cookies were the natural  baking soda cookies. The tallest cookies were the Single Acting Baking Powder.   Looking at my table, one could see the fresh yeast cookies did not work well.  This is because I had to add 118 ML of water to the fresh yeast to activate it.  Cookie dough should be malleable, but not liquid to become cookies, and liquid batter is what the dough became.  It was more like raw cake batter than cookie dough.  What is the Leavening?Diameter of cookie (mm) #1Diameter of cookie (mm) #2Diameter of cookie (mm) #3Diameter of cookie (mm) #4Diameter of Cookie (mm) avg.Height of cookie (mm) #1Height of cookie (mm) #2Height of cookie (mm) #3Height of cookie (mm) #4Height of cookie (mm) avg.Natural Baking Soda7879777577.251715181616.5Chemical Baking Soda71647375712019211819.5Single Acting Baking Powder5557565956.752220212020.75Double Acting Baking Powder7375767073.51110.5111912.875Instant Yeast68646468661513151514.5Active Dry Yeast51545453531715161716.25Fresh YeastFAILEDFAILEDFAILEDFAILEDFAILEDFAILEDFAILEDFAILEDFAILEDFAILED  Conclusion, Reflection, and ApplicationConclusion:   In the end, my hypothesis was incorrect on both counts.  I had thought that the chemical baking soda would have the largest height and the instant yeast would have the largest diameter.  Both of those are incorrect.  Based on my results, the natural baking soda had the largest diameter, and the single-acting baking soda had the largest height.  That was very different from my hypothesis.  What I found  is that the least powerful leavening will have the most spread out cookie., Based on my results, I now believe that natural baking soda is the weakest.  I also found that the strongest levening does not necessarily result in the tallest cookie. Height is determined by the amount of C02 produces in its reaction, and single acting Baking Baking Powder produces the most CO2. Reflection:  I definitely could have been more organized in doing my experiment.  If I had been cleaner and more organized it could have made everything more precise.  Also if I bought everything at the same time and completed my experiment on the same day, I could have further eliminated possible errors.  Also, I  let all of my doughs rest and froze them which might have changed the results a bit.  As for the fresh yeast cookie dough, a lot could have been changed.  I had to add 118 ML of warm water to activate it, so I probably should have used 2.1 ML of the mixture instead of adding it all, hence why it utterly failed. Application:  This experiment applies to real life because leavenings are quintessential to baking.  Baking – and cooking – are a huge part of everyday life because, everyone needs food. Baking uses leavenings and to use the correct leavening is very necessary.  With the results from this experiment, it could help someone not substitute a wrong leavening or if they do, show them why it looks and tastes that way.  Using the results, one could also change  the recipe to benefit their personal tastes.  These are real ways anyone could apply this data to everyday life. Reference ListAlfaro, D. (2017, February 17). The 3 Types of Leavening Agents In Baking and How They Work. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.thespruce.com/main-types-of-leavening-agents-and-how-they-work-4125705America’s Test Kitchen, T. A. (2013). The America’s test kitchen cooking school cookbook: everything you need to know to become a great cook. Brookline, MA: America’s Test Kitchen.Baking powder. (n.d.). Retrieved October 14, 2017, from https://www.bbcgoodfood.com/glossary/baking-powder Baking Soda. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.finecooking.com/ingredient/baking-soda Glazed Lemon Cookies. (2017, October 29). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.marthastewart.com/315603/glazed-lemon-cookies Helmenstine, P. A. (2017, August 25). The Difference Between Baking Powder & Baking Soda. Retrieved October 14, 2017, from https://www.thoughtco.com/baking-soda-and-baking-powder-difference-602090 Here’s the Difference Between Baking Soda and Baking Powder. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.realsimple.com/food-recipes/cooking-tips-techniques/baking/baking-soda-vs-baking-powder López-Alt, J. K. (n.d.). The Food Lab’s Reading List, Days 14 and 15: What Einstein Told His Cook, Volumes 1 and 2. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.seriouseats.com/2017/10/the-food-lab-reading-list-what-einstein-told-his-cook.html National Center for Biotechnology Information. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/516892 School, A. (n.d.). Fresh Yeast vs. Instant Yeast | Baker’s Tips | Resources. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.sfbi.com/fresh-yeast-vs-instant-yeast.html The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. (2016, April 06). Leavening agent. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/leavening-agent Westmoreland, S. (2014). Good Housekeeping the little book of baking: 55 homemade cookies, cakes, cupcakes & pies to make & share. New York: Hearst.Yeast. (n.d.). Retrieved November 14, 2017, from https://www.bbcgoodfood.com/glossary/yeast

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