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The study done by Elvers and Steffens (2017) had 150 people
participate, almost all of them were students and were asked to do two tests.
One test involved the experimenters to pick music and the other test had the people
choose the music. The experimenters had five musicologists create a playlist with
songs considered motivational music and the people created their own playlists
consisting of 12 songs. Participants were randomly selected to either have; the
experimenters’ playlist, the playlist made by the people, or no music at all,
all participants were asked to do physical activity with a ball. As a result of
this experiment, music did not improve performance. In a different study
conducted by Barwood, M. J., Weston, N. J. V.,
Thelwell, R., & Page, J. (2009) recurited six althetic males who were
involved in football and rugby who had to run on a treadmill while under three
conditions involving music; motivation, non-motivational, and control. In both
studies Elvers and Steffens (2017) and Barwood et al. (2009), experimenters
focused on tempo, inspirational lyrics and songs which were not intended to
match the strides when participants were running. In the results, Barwood et
al. (2009) discovered that participants ran further when there was music
playing compared to the other two conditions and the maximum heart rate  was elevated in four people out of six. In
the last study done by Thakare, Mehrotra, & Singh (2017) called up 25 women
and 25 men where they did several trials with different conditions. They were
first asked to run and then stop when they felt tired, no music played. The
following day, the experimenters played music selected by the participants
where they repeated the same task. Thalkare et al. (2017) found that men had a
bigger gap in between the two conditions compared to women, even though they
both improved performance when music was playing. They also found that heart
rate was much greater when music was played in comparison to no music. 

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